Cefprozil (Cefzil) is a medicine that belongs to a group of medicines called cephalosporins. It works by killing the bacteria (bactericidal). It is used in the treatment of patients with the following infections when they are caused with sensitive strains of bacteria:
- Upper respiratory tract infections, including pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis and otitis media
- Infection of the lower respiratory tract, including acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and pneumonia
- Infections of skin and soft tissue
- Uncomplicated urinary tract infections, including acute cystitis
Culture antibiogram should be performed whenever appropriate using cefprozil antibiotic as a test to determine the sensitivity of the pathogen to cefprozil.
Do not use this medicine
If you are hypersensitive (allergic) to cerfprozil.
Warning and precautions
Before you start treatment with cefprozil (Cefzil) it should be carefully examine whether the patient has previously had a hypersensitivity reaction to cefprozil or other cephalosporins, penicillin and other medicines. If the medicine is intended to give to patients hypersensitive to penicillin, caution is necessary because between the beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin) and cephalosporin may occur cross-sensitivity, and there may be up to 10% of patients with an allergy to penicillin in the history of the disease. If there is a allergic reaction to cefprozil (Cefzil), treatment should be discontinued immediately. The consequence of treatment with antibacterial medicines is a change of bacterial flora in the colon and this may allow growth of clostridia. Tests show that the toxin secreted by Clostridium difficile is main cause of colitis associated with the use of antibiotics. If you are diagnosed pseudomembranous colitis it should be treat with appropriate therapy.
Use with other medicine (Interactions)
The level of cefprozil (Cefzil) in blood increases when the medicine is administered at the same time with probenecid. Cephalosporins may cause false positive reaction in the glucose in the urine (Benedict's solution or Feling's solution or Clinitest tablets), but not in the tests for glycosuria based on enzymatic reactions. In determining the blood glucose ferrocyanide test may occur false-negative reactions. The presence of cefprozil in blood does not interfere with the determination of creatinine in urine or plasma with method of alkaline picrate.
Pregnancy and lactation
Conducted to test on the animal did not reveal any signs of damage to the fetus due to use of cefprozil (Cefzil). However, the corresponding well contoled interrogation on pregnant women do not exist, and this medicine should be used during pregnancy only if there is a clear need. Cefprozil (Cefzil) is excreted in the milk less than 0.3% of the administered dose. If it is applied to women who are breastfeeding, caution is needed.
Safety and effectiveness in children younger than 6 months of age have not been established.
Phenylketonuria : cefprozil (Cefzil) oral suspension contains a certain amount of phenylalanine and, therefore, should not be used in patients suffering from this disease.
Driving and using machines
Cefprozil (Cefzil) have no known effects on the driving and using machines.
Cefprozil (Cefzil) is administered orally, independently from the meal. Adults and children over 12 years: Cefprozil (Cefzil) is applied once or twice daily, depending on the type and severity of infection:
|Acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and pneumonia||500 mg every 12 hours|
|Pharyngitis and tonsillitis||500 mg every 24 hours|
|Sinusitis||250 mg every 12 hours or 500 mg every 24 hours|
|Infections of skin and soft tissue||500 mg every 24 hours|
|Uncomplicated urinary tract infections||500 mg every 24 hours|
Children: Cefprozil (Cefzil) is administered to children aged 6 months to 12 years:
|Otitis media||15-20 mg/kg every 12 hours|
|Pharyngitis and tonsillitis||20 mg/kg every 24 hours|
|Sinusitis||7,5-15 mg/kg every 12 hours|
|Infections of skin and soft tissue||20 mg/kg every 24 hours|
Maximum daily dosage for children should not exceed the maximum daily dose recommended for adults. In infections caused by beta hemolytic streptococcus treatment should be administered at least 10 days. Safety and effectiveness of cefprozil (Cefzil) in children younger than 6 months have not been established. Elderly people: In healthy elderly persons (65 years) who had received a single dose of 1 g cefprozil (Cefzil), AUC values were 35-65% higher, the renal clearance was a 40% lower than in healthy volunteers of 20-40 years. The effectiveness and safety for elderly people who have received the usual dosage for adults were acceptable and comparable to those in younger patients. Patients with impaired liver: It is not necessary adjustment of the dose in these patients. Patients with impaired kidneys: Cefprozil (Cefzil) may be administered in patients with impaired renal function. In patients with creatinine clearance values 30ml/min is not necessary to adjust the dose. In patients with creatinine clearance values 30 mL/min after the first standard dose should be given 50% of the standard dose in standard intervals. Cefprozil (Cefzil) is in part removed by hemodialysis and should therefore not be administered before hemodialysis.
Side effects of cefprozil (Cefzil) are similar to other cephalosporins. Disorders of the digestive tract: Common: nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain Rare: colitis and pseudomembranous colitis Hepatobiliary disorders: Common: increase in transaminase Uncommon: increase in alkaline phosphatase Rare: increase in bilirubin and cholestatic jaundice Immune system disorders: Uncommon: rash, urticaria. These reactions have been reported more frequently in children than in adults. Signs and symptoms usually occur a few days after the start of treatment and subside within a few days after cessation of medicine administration. Rare: anaphylaxis, angioedema, erythema multiforme, Steven-Jonson syndrome Nervous system disorders: Common: dizziness Uncommon: hyperactivity, headaches, nervous tension, insomnia, confusion and sleepiness. Blood and lymphatic system: Common: Eosinophilia Uncommon: Decreased white blood cell count Rare: Prolonged prothrombin time, thrombocytopenia, serum sickness. Renal and urinary system: Uncommon: Increased urea and creatinine Other disorders: Common: Rash in the area covered by the diaper and superinfection, genital pruritus and vaginitis.
Cefprozil is primarily removed by the kidneys. In the event of an overdose, particularly in patients with reduced renal function in removing cefprozil assists hemodialysis.