Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone - Use | Dose | Side Effects

Dexamethasone is a drug that belongs to the family of medicines called hormones for systemic use, or more specifically to the group of glucocorticoids. It is known for its very strong anti-inflammatory effects (7 times stronger than prednisolone and 30 times stronger than hydrocortisone). Glucocorticoids are hormones which are normally produced in the adrenal cortex and are divided into natural (such as hydrocortisone and cortisol), and synthetic (such as dexamethasone).

How does Dexamethasone work?

Due that it acts as a hormone, Dexamethasone has a wide spectrum of activity:

  • Increase in metabolism of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates
  • Maintenance of homeostasis of water and electrolytes

When should Dexamethasone be used?

Dexamethasone is used for therapeutic purposes because of its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. It does not exhibit mineralocorticoid activity and can therefore be used in patients who have heart failure. Dexamethasone is used in the following conditions:

  • Treatment of adrenocortical insufficiency
  • Treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  • For the diagnosis of adrenal gland hyperfunction

Contraindications and precautions

Dexamethasone must not be used in the following conditions:

  • In patients with fungal infection
  • In patients who are allergic to this medicine

Dexamethasone should be used cautiously in the following situations:

  • In patients who have tuberculosis
  • In patients who have liver or kidney damage
  • In patients with heart disease
  • In patients with osteoporosis
  • In patients with stomach problems
  • In patients with Herpes virus infection
  • In patients with epilepsy
  • In patients who have psychiatric disorders

Dexamethasone, pregnancy and breastfeeding

Dexamethasone is potentially teratogen.1 It can affect the skeletogenesis in the embryo. Therefore, it should not be used during pregnancy unless your doctor recommended.

It should not be used during breastfeeding because of the potential adverse effects on infants.

Dosage

Dexamethasone is found in the form of injections, eye drops, and tablets.

Dexamethasone eye drops are used to treat conjunctivitis and other inflammatory processes in the eye.

Dexamethasone tablets are administered at the initial dosage of 0.5-10 mg per day. The maintenance dose is 0.5-1.5 mg per day. Dexamethasone is taken once daily, usually in the morning.

Interactions

Dexamethasone can interact with the following medications:

Side effects

Side effects of the Dexamethasone include:

  • Electrolyte imbalance
  • Increased thirst
  • Increased appetite
  • Peptic ulcer
  • Increase in blood sugar levels
  • Mood swings
  • Insomnia
  • Increased susceptibility to infection
  • Reduction of bone density

References

  1. NCBI link